Thursday, 10 May 2012

Taenia Saginata/ Taenia Solium

Taenia Saginata/ Taenia Solium





Morphology
1) Taenia Saginata; beef tapeworm 
- The scolex has 4 suckers but no hooks. ( refer figure 2.0 > b )
- measure approximately 5cm and 3 cm respectively.
- proglottids; greater than 1000 & measures approximately 17 x 5 mm & has 15 - 25 lateral uterine branches on each side of the uterus.
- Spherical to oval eggs & radially striated with a yellowish, brown shell, measures approximately 30 - 40 μm & also has six-hooked oncosphere in embryonated eggs.


figure 2.0

figure 2.1

figure 2.2 : eggs ( eggs both parasite cannot be differentiate ) 


2) Taenia Solium; pork tape worm
- The scolex has a restellum with 2 rows of hooks plus 4 suckers. ( refer figure 2.0 > a )
- measure approximately 5cm and 3 cm respectively.
- proglottids; fewer than 1000 & has 7 - 14 lateral uterine branches.
- Spherical to oval eggs & radially striated with a yellowish, brown shell, measures approximately 30 - 40 μm & also has six-hooked oncosphere in embryonated eggs.


Life cycle
Human infection with this both parasite by ingestion of uncooked beef or pork that containing the cysticercus larvae of this parasite. The larvae is digested out the meat in the stomach. The scolex of the larvae attaches to the mucosa of the small intestine & develop to adult worm. Eggs are produced, and passed in human feces than ingested by cows or pigs ( as intermediate host ). The onchosphere hatches from egg, and develops into the cysticercus larvae in the animals tissue.
If the eggs of Taenia Solium are accidentally ingested by humans ( acts as an intermediate host ). A condition known as cysticercosis may develop. The oncosphere develops and escapes from the eggs, and invades the body tissue, especially tissues and organs of nervous system ( maturation of adult worm does not occur ). 


Transmission and Pathogenesis
1) Ingestion of raw or uncooked beef or pork contaminated with this both larvae.
2) Asymptomatic
3) Mild symptom; diarrhea, indigestion or abdominal pain.
4) Human ingestion of eggs of Taenia Solium;
- ingestion contamination food/ water with feces that contain Taenia Solium eggs.
- Cysticercus larvae may migrate to the brain and causing neurocysticercosis.
- May cause headache, seizures & also death.


Laboratory diagnosis
1) Finding gravid proglottids or eggs in human feces.
2) Computed tomographic ( CT ) scans.
3) Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ).


Treatment and prevention
1) Praziquantel and niclosamide as treatment.
2) Good sanitizing practice.
3) Cooking beef or pork.


this parasite can develop as long as human intestine













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